Chicken Anatomy and Physiology

ANATONMY & PHYSIOLOGY

  1. Why should we know something about the Anatomy & Physiology of Chicken ?
  2. What type of creature is a Chicken ?

                – Short life                                           – High body temp.

                – Rapid pulse                      – High Reproductive rate

                – Quick digestion                              – Physiological activities

                                                                                are inter – related.

3.Parts & functions in a Chicken :

  1. Feathers
  • Conserves body temperature
  • Protects the skin
  • Feathering indicates growth
  • Hormonal activates – Molt

 

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    1. SKELETON :
    • Importance in Broilers
    • Respiration
    • Red Cells
    • Medullary bones
  • Brain – Spinal Cord

                       -Control of Endocrine glands

                      – Damages to the brain

                      – High temperatures

                     – Injuries

Circulatory System : BODY FRAME

Facts about the skeletal Frame Work :

  • Skeletal growth is Rapid
  • Reaches max. size weeks before body weight stops increasing.
  • 90% of shank length growth is completed by 10
  • Only about 45 % of body weight is completed by 10
  • Shank lengths reach maximum length by 16 – 18
  • Body weights continue increasing till about 40 weeks.
  • More difficult to alter skeletal growth than body growth.

Respiratory System :

  • Entirely different from mammals
  • Larynx Trachea
  • Lungs Absorption of Oxygen

                Take away spent gases

  • Air Sacs : Help in pumping air IN & OUT
  • Hollow bones

Advantages & Disadvantages of the Respiratory Mechanism in chicken.

Nervous System :

 

Heart, Pericardium

Blood & Anemia, Red Cells

Comb – an indicator.

Digestive System

  1. Tongue : Swallowing

                                                Amylase

  1. Gullet
  2. Crop – Storage

                                                – Softening of feed

                                                Crop Mycosis

  1. Proventriculus

                                                – Gastric Juices

                                                – HCI & Pepsin

                                                – Papillae

Digestive System

  1. Gizzard

                        – Muscles for grinding

                        – Insoluble grit

  1. Small Intestines

                        – Duodenum

                        – Villi

Keep intestines in good condition for maximum ABSORPTION

  1. Large Intestines : Absorption of water

                        – Loose droppings

           – Dehydration

 

CECA :

                        – Bacterial Fermentation

                        – Digestion of fibre

Pancreas :

                        – Pancreatic Juices , Insulin, Trypsin, Amylase, Lipase

Liver :         

– A Laboratory

  1. Bile
  2. Met. Of Proteins & Fats
  3. De – toxification
  4. Processing & distribution of digested food
  5. Changes carbohydrates into Glucose
  6. Manufactures, alters & Stores many nutrients –

                                                – Vitamins

                                                – Minerals

                                                – Sugar

Liver & Hepatitis

 

 

REPRODUCTION

  1. Ovary :  Cluster of Ova : 12000 – 15000 ovarian follicle
    • Ova increase in size in sequence
    • Liver supplies yolk material
    • Increase by Hormonal influence

                                                                                                FSH

  • Pattern of maturation

                        Upto 10 days before ovulation : Very Slow

                        9th & 8th day                                                                                            : Rapid

                        7 – 4                                                                                                            : Very Rapid

                        Last 3 days                                                                                               : Slow

Ovulation : Leutenising Hormone (LH)

                           (Ca, P, Vitamins)

                           15 – 75 mts after previous egg.

 

  1. Oviduct :

                        Infundibulum                 : Grasping

                        (15 mts)     – Fertilisation

   Magnum : (3 hrs)

                        Secretion of Albumen

   Isthmus :

                        Shell membranes        (1½ hrs)

   Uterus or Shell gland

                        – Shell formation & pigment

                        19 – 20 hrs + 15 mts.

 

                                                Estrogen    : Prepares Oviduct

Ovary

                                                Progesterone   : Albumen, Shell

Some Practical Thoughts :

                        – Germinal Disc

                        – Calcium & Shell

                        – Clutch

                        – Jumbo eggs & Lighting

                        – Diseases of Rep. System

 

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